Eubacterium

For many years the genus Eubacterium was regarded to be very broad, containing many unrelated species. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene-sequence determination and other data the genus is undergoing substantial taxonomic revision, with many species being transferred to other genera.2 The genus Eubacterium includes bacilli, or rod-shaped organisms, which stain Gram-positive, and are non-sporforming, or asporogenous in nature. As obligate anaerobes, these bacteria thrive in an environment that is devoid of oxygen, and will die if exposed to atmospheric oxygen levels. These organisms are also known to be slow-growing, thereby, making them difficult to cultivate in the laboratory environment, especially when they are the focus of biochemical, analytical testing which attempts to identify isolates of these bacteria.11 They have been found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic.

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Source: Stand Genomic Sci. 2015; 10: 71 via PubMed Central

Eubacterium species are the second most common bacteria in the large intestine. The most commonly isolated species are E. aerofaciens, E. cylindroides, E. lentum (now known as Eggerthella lenta), and E. rectale. Eubacterium species are also frequently found in oropharynx, vagina and urine of healthy women. Eggerthella lenta is frequently isolated from blood. Species of Eubacterium are relatively common in wounds and abscesses, including brain abscesses, perineal, perirectal, and pleuropulmonary infectious processes.3. Although rarely, they have been reported to cause endocarditis, bacteremia, and other life-threatening infections.2 Some Eubacterium species commonly found on the skin have been reported to cause skin infections in injection drug users.

E. nodatum, E. brachy, and E. timidum (reclassified as Mogibacterium timidum) are thought to be periodontal pathogens. E. nodatum was found to be in the top two to 14 species enumerated in chronic periodontal disease.4 E. saphenum has been isolated from oral-dental exudates. Eubacterium infirmum has been found, among 28 other bacterial pathogens, in treated root canals of teeth with posttreatment apical periodontitis.7 E. alactolyticum, now named Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, is an obligate anaerobic, non-spore forming rod. Normally, this bacterium can be found inhabiiting the oral cavity, and is often involved in periodontal disease-related pathologic conditions.11



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Eubacterium callanderi, an environmental anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium, was recovered from the blood of a patient with a bladder carcinoma.5 Eubacterium plautii, which normally resides on the surface of the intestinal lumen, was reported to cause infection after kidney transplantation in a patient undergoing immunosuppressive treatment and heavy antibiotherapy8 A rare case of Eubacterium limosum bacteremia was reported a senile patient which led to the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the colon.9 Other Eubacterium species were isolated from urine of healthy women and patients with chronic recurrent cystitis.6 Recently, it has been suggested that the bacterial composition of the individual intestinal flora might represent a crucial factor contributing to the potential role of gut bacteria, including Eubacterium species, in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Some species, such as Eubacterium rangiferina, a common anaerobic rumen bacterial isolate from reindeer, have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites that are well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.10

References

  1. Parija. Textbook of Microbiology & Immunology
  2. Washington C. Winn, Stephen D. Allen, William M. Janda, Elmer W. Koneman, Paul C. Schreckenberger, Gary W. Procop, Gail L. Woods. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology
  3. Paul G. Engelkirk, Janet Duben-Engelkirk. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
  4. Alexandrina L. Dumitrescu. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease
  5. Eubacterium callanderi Bacteremia: Report of the First Case
  6. Bacterial mixed infection in women with chronic recurrent cystitis. Naboka IuL, Kogan MI, Vasil'eva LI, Gudima IA, Miroshnichenko EA, Ibishev KhS.
  7. Rôças IN, Hülsmann M, Siqueira JF Jr.. Microorganisms in root canal-treated teeth from a German population
  8. Eubacterium plautii infection in a kidney transplant recipient: a noteworthy case of pleural effusion and fever. Orlando G, Pisani F, Mastrantonio P, Bonanni L, Di Cocco P, D'Angelo M, Tabilio A, Famulari A.
  9. Eubacterium bacteremia and colon cancer. Sungkanuparph S, Chansirikarnjana S, Vorachit M.
  10. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen. Sundset MA, Kohn A, Mathiesen SD, Praesteng KE
  11. CDC

 

 


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