Proteus is a group of rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria, family Enterbacteriaceae, which cause urinary tract infections, meningitis in newborns and infants, wound infections, rheumatoid arthritis, and gastroenteritis, but are rarely associated with foodborne illnesses.2

Proteus are Gram-negative non-sporeforming coccobacilli many of which have long, curved, filamentous forms. They are arranged in single, in pairs, or in short chains. Proteus colonies on nutrient media emit characteristic "fishy" odor. The organism has the ability to transform from a single cell form to a multi-cell elongated (swarmer) form. Proteus colonies spread on the surface of a culture medium in successive waves (swarming pattern).3,5

Proteus species are widespread in nature, they can be found in polluted water, soil, and manure. Due to their ability to break down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, these organisms play an important role in decomposing organic matter of animal origin. Therefore, they are frequently isolated from animal and human feces. Proteus mirabilis is a common inhabitant of dogs, cows, pigs, and birds; Proteus vulgaris is often recovered from cows and birds,

Human Pathogen

Proteus mirabilis is part of the intestinal microbial community of humans and animals. It can also be found in decomposing meat and sewage. The organism possesses a powerful enzyme urease that breaks down urea (present in large quantities in urine) to form ammonia. This results in elevated urinary pH level and, therefore, urinary tract infections. High urinary pH can contribute directly to kidney toxicity and increased urinary stone formation. Urinary stones can result in further kidney damage by obstructing urine flow2,4

Proteus is often the cause of bacterial invasion of the bloodstream often associated with diabetes, heart and lung disease, or cancer.4

Food Contaminant

Proteus are commonly isolated from freshwater and saltwater fish. Contaminated fish consumption leads to a disease known as scombroid poisoning.

Animal Pathogen

Urinary tract infections caused by Proteus mirabilis are frequent in dogs and cats. In these animals, an infection with the organism can lead to formation of struvite stones in kidneys. Proteus species are occasionally involved in ear infections in dogs and cats and are thought to cause diarrhea in mink, lambs, calves, goats, and puppies.6


  1. Microterrors. Tony Hart
  2. Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens. Dongyou Liu
  3. Textbook of Microbiology & Immunology. Parija
  4. Case files: Microbiology. Eugene C. Toy, Audrey Wanger
  5. Essentials of veterinary bacteriology and mycology. Gordon R. Carter, Darla J. Wise


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