Diseases Associated With Anelloviruses

People can get viral infection in a number of ways. Meat and meat products are the source of numerous viral enteric infections in humans. Enteric viruses harbored by farmed animals may contaminate meat during slaughter and meat preparation. For instance, virus presence at slaughter time (22-29 weeks) has been detected in 12% to 41% of Canadian pigs while anellovirus has been isolated from beef and pork purchased from stores in San Francisco.4 Anelloviruses are usually identified in blood, and ticks may obtain viruses from infected humans and domestic animals, including cats and dogs, during blood feeding spreading then from one host to another.

Anelloviruses are non-enveloped, circular, single-stranded DNA viruses. There has been a large number of anellovirus species reported in wild and domesticated animals, including pigs, wild boar, camels, cats, dogs, pine martens, badgers, sea lions and a number of non-human primates.

Humans may at any one time be infected with multiple types of anellovirus: TTV (Alphatorquevirus), TTMDV (Gammatorquevirus) and TTMV (Betatorquevirus). The oral cavity might play an important role in anellovirus transmission since these viruses have been frequently detected in respiratory tract fluids and saliva. Indeed, anelloviruses can reach higher antibody titers in saliva than in blood, and the same type can be found in the blood and saliva of the same person.3,6

BPV

Human anellovirus infections are highly common. A study in Japan found that 75–100% of patients tested were infected with at least one of the three human anelloviruses, and many were infected with multiple species. Anelloviruses can infect young children, with the earliest documented infections occurring within the first months of life causing fever. These viruses have been found in nearly every body site, fluid, and tissue tested including blood plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), nasopharyngeal aspirates, bone marrow, saliva, breast milk, feces, as well as various tissues including thyroid gland, lymph node, lung, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidney.1

Anellovirus species have also been also associated with gastroenteritis, a clinical illness of humans and other animals that is characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. Gastroenteritis stands among the five principal causes of mortality and disease at all ages worldwide. The most vulnerable population is children under 5 years of age, where it accounts for the second cause of postneonatal death, with approximately 2.6 million deceased per year Anellovirus is the second most abundant virus species isolated from patients with gastroenteritis.2



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People can get viral infection in a number of ways. Meat and meat products are the source of numerous viral enteric infections in humans. Enteric viruses harbored by farmed animals may contaminate meat during slaughter and meat preparation. For instance, virus presence at slaughter time (22-29 weeks) has been detected in 12% to 41% of Canadian pigs while anellovirus has been isolated from beef and pork purchased from stores in San Francisco.4 Anelloviruses are usually identified in blood, and ticks may obtain viruses from infected humans and domestic animals, including cats and dogs, during blood feeding spreading then from one host to another.

References

  1. Increased Prevalence of Anellovirus in Pediatric Patients with Fever. Erin McElvania TeKippe et al.
  2. DNA Microarray for Detection of Gastrointestinal Viruses. Miguel A. Martínez et al.
  3. Identification of novel anelloviruses with broad diversity in UK rodents. Shoko Nishiyama et al.
  4. What's for dinner?: viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken. Wen Zhang, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Beatrix Kapusinszky, and Eric Delwarta.
  5. Metagenomic Profile of the Viral Communities in Rhipicephalus spp. Ticks from Yunnan, China. Han Xia et al.
  6. Genome Sequence of Two Novel Species of Torque Teno Minivirus from the Human Oral Cavity. Marcos Parras-Moltó, Patricia Suárez-Rodríguez, Asier Eguia, José Manuel Aguirre-Urizar, and Alberto López-Buenocorresponding

 

 

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