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Hepatic Fibrosis

Chronic fibrotic liver disease is a general name for the terminal stage of chronic inflammatory conditions that can be developed in the liver and often lead to death through progressive liver failure. Hepatic fibrosis is an overly active wound healing in which excessive connective tissue builds up in the liver and normal structural elements of tissues are replaced with large amounts of scar tissue. The disease has been described in young German Shepherd dogs with ascites, weight loss and hepatic encephalopathy.

Hepatic fibrosis can be caused by chronic injury, especially if there is an inflammation; viruses, and increased hepatic copper concentration. Fibrosis itself causes no symptoms but can lead to portal hypertension when the scarring distorts blood flow through the liver. Hepatic fibrosis can develop into cirrhosis, a failure to properly replace destroyed liver cells.

Diagnosis & Treatment

Needle liver biopsy is the primary tool for the diagnosis and assessment of fibrosis. Treatment involves correcting the underlying condition when possible. Response to treatment with anti-fibrotic therapy with glucocorticosteroids or colchicine is variable. Research into the reversal of hepatic fibrosis now concentrates on two areas: (1) eradication of the primary cause; (2) a direct attack on the pathways which are used for producing liver scars. The prognosis depends on the underlying condition. Some dogs may die shortly after diagnosis; others may survive two-and-a-half years, and yet others may survive up to four years after the initial diagnosis.

References
  1. Idiopathic hepatic fibrosis in 15 dogs. HC Rutgers, S Haywood, and DF Kelly. In: The Veterinary Record, Vol 133, Issue 5, 115-118
  2. Liver fibrosis and regeneration in dogs and cats : An immunohistochemical approach. Jooske IJzer. In: Veterinary Science Tomorrow
  3. Hepatic Fibrosis Inhibitors. Publication #EP1941906. In: European Patent Office
    4. Congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with Mallory bodies and copper retention.Evans J, Harris O, Van Deth AG. In: Aust N Z J Med. 1984 Aug;14(4):500-3
  4. Friedrich-Rust M, Koch C, Rentzsch A, Sarrazin C, Schwarz P, Herrmann E, Lindinger A, Sarrazin U, Poynard T, Schäfers HJ, Zeuzem S, Abdul-Khaliq H Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with Fontan circulation using transient elastography and biochemical fibrosis markers. In: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008 Mar; 135(3):560-7.

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