Hyperlipoproteinemia

Hyperlipoproteinemia is an increased concentration of one or more lipoproteins in blood, which interferes with how the blood carries fats. Some forms are mild, producing symptoms that can be cured by diet, while other are potentially fatal. There are five types of hyperlipoproteinemia each of which has distinctive symptoms. In some cases drug therapy is needed, or even surgery. Miniature Schnauzers and Beagles seem to be predisposed to this condition.

Type I causes attacks of severe abdominal pain which usually occur when an animal eats fatty foods. It may also cause loss of appetite and fever and pinkish yellow deposits on the skin. Type II causes firm masses on the tendons of limbs and premature coronary heart disease. It can produce soft, inflamed sores on the pressure points (elbows and knees), yellow patches and nodules on the skin and clogging of arteries. Type IV is linked to obesity and diabetes. Type V most commonly causes abdominal pain, multiple yellow to white patches, plaques or nodules on the skin called xanthomas, and liver problems. The xanthomas most often occur on the neck, face, tips of the ears, elbows and tail. Treatment of all of types of hyperlipoproteinemia requires strict control of obesity, diabetes and total fat intake. Hyperlipoproteinemia is a common finding in patients with pancreatitic disease1. Sometimes the disorder may cause a decrease in vision.2 Prolonged corticosteroid administration may result in hyperlipoproteinemia and thus may contribute to arteriosclerosis. 4

References:

  1. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. Douglas H. Slatter
  2. Ophthalmology for the Veterinary Practitioner. Frans C. Stades
  3. Problem-based Feline Medicine. Jacquie Rand
  4. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIV. John D. Bonagura, David C. Twedt