Almond eye – Almond-shaped eye rim.
Angulation – The angle formed by joints; particularly at the shoulder, upper arm, elbow, stifle, and hock.
Anus – The outlet of the rectum.
Apple head – A skull that is unusually domed or rounded.
Apron – Long chest hair beneath the neck. Frill.
Arched loin – Prominent musculature at loin.
Bad mouth – Any incorrect bite, depending on the breed standard.
Badger – A fine blend of brown, black, gray, and white hair.
Barrel chest – Rounded rib cage.
Barrel hocks – Outward-turning hocks, causing the feet to turn in.
Basset – A low-set hound (from French basset)
Bat ear – An erect ear with a broad base; rounded at the top and facing forward.
Belton – A mixture of white and colored hair.
Benched show – A dog show at which the dogs are restrained to sitting on the benches.
Berger – French for sheepdog.
Best in Show – Top award at dog shows.
Best of Breed – Award at dog shows given to the best specimen of each breed in competition.
Best of Group – Award at dog shows given to the winner of a group competition.
Bird dog – A dog that tracks birds by air scent.
Bite – The way upper and lower teeth meet.
Blaze – White marking between the eyes and down the nose.
Blue merle – A mixture of blue, gray, and black hairs.
Blue – Nearly black.
Bobtail – A dog that has either no tail or one that is docked very short.
Bodied up – Well developed.
Bouvier – French for cattle dog.
Brace – A pair of dogs.
Bracelets – Flings of hair on a dog’s leg left after trimming.
Braque – French for pointer.
Breastbone – Chest bone at front of the dog. Sternum.
Breeching – Tan hair on the inner thighs.
Brindle – An even mixture of black hair in lines or bands, covering a tan, brown, or tan coat.
Brisket – Breastbone or sternum. Often used synonymously with chest.
Broken color – Solid color intersected with another color.
Broken-up face – Foreface characterized by a receding nose, deep stop, and wrinkles.
Brush – A bushy tail.
Bull neck – Short, thick neck.
Burr – The inside of the ear.
Butterfly nose – A dark nose with some light pigmentation.
Button ear – A short ear that folds forward to cover the burr.
Camelback – Arched back. Humped or roached.
Canines – Pointed molars in the upper and lower jaw.
Carpus – Bone just above the foot.
Cat-footed – Having short, round, arched foot.
Champion – A title awarded to a show dog which has accumulated a certain amount of points at several dog shows.
Cheeky – Round, prominent cheeks that appear thick and protruding.
China eye – A clear blue eye.
Chiselled – A head that is particularly clean-cut between the eyes.
Chops – Jowls.
Cloddy – Heavy, low, thick-set.
Cobby – Comparatively short between the withers and the hips.
Collar – A marking around the neck.
Conformation show – A show at which Championship certificates or champion points are awarded.
Corky – Lively and active.
Couplings – The body from the withers to the hips.
Coursing – Hunting, usually of hare.
Cow hocks – Hocks that turn inwards.
Crank tail – Tail carried down, slightly bending upwards.
Crest – The upper neck where it arches.
Cropping – The trimming of ears.
Cross-breed – A mixed breed. Mongrel.
Croup – The back, from the loin to the hind legs.
Dam – The female parent.
Dappled – Colored, mottled markings.
Deadgrass – Tan.
Dentition – Number and arrangement of teeth.
Dew-claw – Extra toe on the inside of the leg; virtually useless; it is often removed.
Dewlap – Loose, pendulous skin beneath the throat.
Digits – Toes.
Dish-faced – A type of face characterized by an upward-slanting or concave nasal bone.
Dock – To shorten a tail by cutting.
Dogue – French for mastiff.
Domed – A rounded, convex skull.
Down-faced – Foreface with down-curved nasal bone from the stop to the nose.
Drop ear – A folded, drooping ear; the opposite of an erect ear.
Dry neck – Taut neck skin.
Dudley nose – Flesh-colored nose.
East-west feet – Feet that toe out. Slew feet.
Ectropion – An ailment resulting in outward-turning eyelids.
Entropion – An ailment resulting in inward-turning eyelids.
Epagneul – French for spaniel.
Estrus – The mating period for bitches.
Even bite – When upper and lower teeth meet without overlap.
Ewe neck – Concave curvature of the neckline.
Expression – The impression created by the color, size and positioning of the eyes.
Eyeteeth – The upper canines.
Fall – Hair that falls over the face.
Fallow – Pale color, varying from cream to light fawn.
Fangs – The canine teeth.
Fault – Any trait that conflicts with the breed standard.
Fawn – A red-yellow with a brownish cast, of medium brilliance.
Feathering – Fringe.
Femur – The thigh bone, from the hips to the stifle.
Fiddle front – Stance resulting from poor angulation at elbows whereby forefeet turn out, creating violin-like outline. French front. Chippendale front.
Field trial – Outdoors competition for hunting dogs in which dogs are judged for their tracking, pointing, or retrieving abilities.
Flag – A long tail, carried vertically.
Flare – A blaze that widens towards the skull.
Flat bone – An elliptical rather than round leg bone.
Flat-sided – Ribs that are too flat.
Flecked – Lightly ticked coat.
Flews – Pendulous upper lips.
Flush – To drive birds or other game from cover and force them to take flight.
Flying ears – Any type of ear that sticks out wing-like from the face.
Forearm – The foreleg between the elbow and pastern.
Foreface – Front of the face. Muzzle.
Forefoot – Front foot.
Foreleg – Front leg from elbow to foot.
Forequarters – Front part of the dog, excluding head and neck.
Foxy – Alert, keen expression. Pointed nose on short foreface and erect ears.
Frontal bone – Bone over the eyes. Forehead.
Furrow – An indentation along the center of the skull to the stop. Median line.
Gait – The manner and rhythm of forward motion – walking, trotting, or running.
Game – Hunted wild birds or animals.
Gazehound – A hound that tracks game by sight. Sight-hound. Sighthound.
Gestation – Period from conception to birth; usually about 60 days.
Griffon – A coarse-haired, terrier-like type of dog.
Grizzle – A mixture of colored hair with a gray coat.
Guard hairs – Stiff, long hairs which extend beyond the undercoat.
Hackney action – Forefeet that lift high.
Hare-footed – Having a long, narrow foot with tight toes.
Hare-pied – A predominantly tan pied coat, resembling the color of a hare.
Harlequin – Patched or pied coat, usually black on white color.
Haunches – Buttocks. Croup.
Haw – The membrane in the inside corner of the eye. Third eyelid. Inner eye.
Haw-eyes – Drooping lower eyelid that exposes conjunctiva or third eyelid.
Hazel – Light brown.
Heat – Estrus.
Heel – Hock.
High-standing – Tall, long-legged.
Hind foot – Rear foot.
Hock – The joint between the second thigh and the pastern. Heel.
Hocks well let down – Relatively short hocks that are close to the ground.
Hound-marked – White, tan, and black color.
Inbreeding – The mating of close relatives.
Incisors – Upper and lower front teeth.
Interbreeding – The cross-breeding of dogs of different varieties.
Isabella – Fawn.
Kink tail – A tail that is sharply bent.
Layback – The angle of the shoulder blade when seen from the side. A face with a receding nose.
Leather – Lobe of the outer ear.
Leggy – Legs that are too long.
Level bite – When the upper front teeth meet the lower, edge to edge. Pincer bite.
Level gait – Movement whereby the wither neither rise nor fall.
Linty – Soft-textured coat.
Lion – Tawny.
Lippy – Pendulous or ill-fitting lips.
Liver – Deep brown.
Loaded shoulders – Shoulders that project from the body because of over-developed muscles.
Loin – The portion of the body that straddles the spine between the ribs and the hindquarters.
Long coupled – A long loin.
Lower thigh – Second thigh.
Lumber – Superfluous flesh.
Lumbering – A ponderous gait.
Mane – Long, profuse neck hair.
Mantle – Dark hair on the shoulders, back, and sides.
Marking – Coloring on the coat.
Mask – Dark shading onthe face.
Median line – Furrow.
Merle – Blue-gray with black flecks.
Merle eyes – Brown and blue eyes with a black iris.
Metacarpus – Pastern.
Metatarsus – See Pastern.
Milk teeth – First teeth.
Miscellaneous class – A group of dogs where no regular classification is provided.
Mismarks – Coat markings that do not conform to the colors of the breed.
Moulting – Seasonal shedding of the coat.
Oblique shoulders – Shoulders that slope rearwards; well laid back.
Occipital protruberance – A prominent occiput.
Occiput – Top of the skull, located towards the back.
Otter tail – A round tail coated with short, thick hair that tapers toward the tip from a thick root.
Out at shoulders – When shoulder blades are pronounced and jut from the body.
Oval chest – A chest more deep than wide.
Overhang – A pronounced brow.
Overshot – A jaw whose upper incisors overlap the bottom incisors. Pig jaw.
Pads – Soles of the feet.
Paper foot – A flat foor with thin pads.
Parti-color – Patches of at least two colors.
Pastern – The region between the carpus and the foot; metacarpus. Rear pastern is the region between the hock and foot; the metatarsus.
Pedigree – The written record of a purebred dog’s lineage.
Pencilling – Black lines.
Pied – Patches of white and another color.
Pig jaw – Overshot.
Pigeon-breast – Protruding breastbone in a narrow chest.
Pig-eye – Small, steely eye.
Pile – Dense, soft undercoat.
Pincer bite – Level bite.
Pluck – Strip.
Plume – Long fringe on the tail.
Point – The immobile stance taken by a hunting dog to indicate the location of the game.
Pointer – A hunting dog that points.
Points of the dog – Body parts and joints.
Prick ears – An erect, pointed ear.
Prognathism – Undershot or overshot jaws.
Purebred – A dog whose sire and dam are of the same breed.
Racy – Tall, lightly built.
Rat tail – A tail that has a thick root covered with curls and bare tip.
Retriever – A hunting dog that can be trained to pick up shot game.
Ribbed up – Long, angular ribs.
Ridge – A streak of hair growing in a reverse direction to the main coat.
Ring tail – A tail that is carried up and around.
Roach back – Back with a convex curve.
Roan – Colored hair finely mixed with white.
Roman nose – A nose with a high bridge.
Rose ear – A small, drop ear that folds back to expose the burr.
Ruff – Long, thick hair around the neck.
Rump – Croup.
Sable – Black hair over a sandy background. Golden to mahogany brown.
Sabre tail – Curved, sabre-like tail.
Saddle back – A back that is long and dips behind the withers.
Saddle – Contrasting hair (color, texture, or length) that forms a saddle-like shape over the back.
Scapula – Shoulder blade.
Scissor bite – When the upper teeth closely overlap the lower teeth.
Screw tail – Short, twisted tail.
Second thigh – Hindquarters from stifle to hock. Lower thigh.
Sedge – Deadgrass.
Self color – One (whole) color, and maybe lighter shadings.
Semi-prick ears – Erect ears with tips breaking forwards.
Septum – Vertical line between nostrils.
Service – Use of a stud dog.
Setter – A type of long-haired dog that “freezes” in the presence of a game and flushes the game upon command.
Sheepdog – A dog trained to guard and herd the sheep.
Shelly – Weak, narrow, insubstantial body.
Sickle hocks – When the hock joints are underextended, resulting in a sharp hock angle.
Sickle tail – A tail that is carried out and up in a sickle shape (semi-circle).
Single tracking – When footprints fall on a single line.
Sire – The male parent.
Skully – Thick and coarse through skull.
Slab-sided – Flattened ribs.
Slew feet – Feet turned out.
Sloping shoulders – Shoulder blades set obliquely.
Smooth coat – Short, close hair.
Snipy – A pointed, weak muzzle.
Snowshoe feet – Slightly webbed toes.
Spectacles – Dark markings around the eyes.
Spike tail – Short, straight, tapering tail.
Spirited – A game dog is an enthusiastic hunter.
Spitz – A type of northern dog, distinguished by a wedge-shaped head, erect ears, thick coat, and a powerful build. The spitz family comprises several breeds.
Splay foot – A flat foot with spreading toes.
Spring of ribs – A reference to the rib contours.
Squirrel tail – A tail that is carried up and back over the topline.
Stern – The tail of a sporting dog.
Sternum – Breastbone. Brisket.
Stifle – The hind leg joint located between the thigh and the second thigh. Knee.
Stop – The depression beneath the eyes at the junction of the nasal bone and the skull.
Straight shoulders – Shoulder blades that are truly straight up and down, rather than sloping.
Straight-hocked – Hocks that are insufficiently bent.
Strip – To remove hair on a wire-coated dog. Pluck.
Stud book – A registry of the breeding particulars of pedigreed dogs.
Swayback – A topline that is concave between the withers and hips.
Sword tail – A tail that hangs straight down.
Tail set – The way the tail is positioned on the croup.
Team – A group of at least three dogs.
Terrier front – Straight, narrow front.
Texture – Feel (nature) of the coat.
Thigh The region between the hip and the stifle.
Thorax – Chest.
Thumb marks – Black spots on the pasterns or on the head.
Ticked – Flecks of black or colored hair interspersed on a white coat.
Tied at the elbows – Elbows that are too close together beneath the body.
Timber – Bone.
Topknot – A tuft of hair on the head.
Topline – The top of the back.
Tricolor – Three colors. Frequently the black, white, and tan colors on hounds.
Tuck up – A reference to the body depth at the loin.
Tulip ears – Wide, stiffly upright ears whose outer edges curve slightly forward to resemble a tulip petal.
Undercoat – A dense second coat that is hidden by a longer topcoat.
Undershot – A kaw whose lower incisors overlap the upper incisors.
Waist – A narrowing of the body at the loin.
Wall-eye – Light blue eye.
Weedy – Light in bone; unsubstantial.
Well laid back shoulders – Oblique shoulders.
Well let down – Short, upright metatarsals.
Wet neck – A neck with dewlap.
Wheaten – Pale yellow or fawn.
Wheel back – A topline that arches over the loin.
Whelping – The act of giving birth to puppies.
Whip tail – Pointed, stiff, straight tail.
Whiskers – Long hair on the muzzle and the jaw.
Whole color – Solid color. Self color.
Withers – The highest point of the body, excluding the head; located behind the neck.
Wrinkle – Folded skin.
Wrist – Carpus.
Wry mouth – A mouth whose lower and upper jaws are not aligned.