Breed Predisposition to Orthopedic Diseases

A large-scale epidemiological study was conducted to determine breeds at risk for 12 developmental orthopedic diseases (DODs). Developmental orthopedic diseases investigated included canine hip dysplasia (CHD); craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); fragmented coronoid process; hypertrophic osteodystrophy; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle, caudal humeral head, femoral condyles, and talar trochlear ridges; panosteitis; patella luxation; and ununited anconeal process.

Developmental orthopedic diseases (DODs) are a group of diseases that cause skeletal abnormalities in young, growing dogs.1–12 The etiology of most of the DODs is considered to be multifactorial, attributable to both genetic and environmental factors.

The advantages of knowing which breeds of dogs are at increased risk for DODs are evident. The information can help practitioners during their evaluation of young dogs with skeletal disorders by providing differential diagnoses. It can heighten awareness among breed club members, helping them make decisions about how to spend their foundation dollars, and it can lead to more emphasis being placed on methods to diagnose and genetically screen for the disease in that breed before animals are bred and genes are recycled to the gene pool.

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Breeds Affected by Orthopedic Diseases

Canine hip dysplasia

Airedale terrier, Alaskan malamute, bearded collie, Bernese mountain dog, bloodhound, border collie, Bouvier des Flandres, briard, Brittany spaniel, bulldog, bullmastiff, Chesapeake Bay retriever,14 chow chow, English springer spaniel, German shepherd dog, German wirehaired pointer, Giant schnauzer, Golden retriever, Gordon setter, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, keeshond, Kuvasz, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Neapolitan mastiff, Newfoundland, Norwegian elkhound, Old English sheepdog, pointer, Portuguese water dog, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Samoyed, Treeing Walker coonhound.

Craniomandibular osteopathy

Cairn terrier, Scottish terrier, West Highland white terrier.

FCP fragmented coronoid process

Basset hound, Bernese mountain dog, Bouvier des Flandres, bullmastiff, Chow chow, German shepherd dog, Golden retriever, Gordon setter, Irish wolfhound, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Newfoundland, rottweiler, Saint Bernard.

Hypertrophic osteodystrophy

Boxer, Chesapeake Bay retriever, German shepherd dog, Golden retriever, Great Dane, Irish setter, Labrador retriever, Weimaraner.

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

Australian shepherd, Cairn terrier, Chihuahua, dachshund, Lhasa apso, Miniature pinscher, Pug, Toy poodle, West Highland white terrier, Yorkshire terrier.

OCD Elbow

Chow chow, German shepherd dog, golden retriever,11 Great Dane, Labrador retriever, Newfoundland, Rottweiler.

Osteochondrosis of the shoulder

Bernese mountain dog, border collie, Bouvier des Flandres, Boxer, Bullmastiff, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Dalmatian, English setter, German shorthaired pointer, German shepherd dog, German wirehaired pointer, Golden retriever11, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, Irish wolfhound, Kuvasz, Labrador retriever, Mastiff, Munsterlander, Newfoundland, Old English sheepdog, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard poodle.

Osteochondrosis of the talar trochlear ridges

Labrador retriever, Rottweiler, Bullmastiff.


Afghan hound, Akita, American cocker spaniel, American Staffordshire terrier, Basset hound, Bearded collie, Bernese mountain dog, boxer, Bull terrier, Bulldog, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Chinese shar pei, Chow chow, Dalmatian, Doberman pinscher, English setter, English springer spaniel, Giant schnauzer, German shepherd dog, German shorthaired pointer, Golden retriever, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, Irish wolfhound, Labrador retriever, Mastiff, Neapolitan mastiff, Newfoundland, Rhodesian ridgeback, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Shih tzu, Weimaraner, West Highland white terrier.

Patella luxation

Akita, American cocker spaniel, Australian terrier, Basset hound, Bichon frise, Boston terrier, Bulldog, Cairn terrier, Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Chihuahua, Chinese shar pei, Chow chow, Flat-coated retriever, Great Pyrenees, Japanese chin, Keeshond, Lhasa apso, Maltese, Miniature pinscher, Miniature poodle, Papillon, Pekingese, Pomeranian, Pug, Shih tzu, Silky terrier, Standard poodle, Toy fox terrier, Toy poodle, West Highland white terrier, Wirehaired fox terrier, Yorkshire terrier.

Ununited anconeal process

Basset hound, Bernese mountain dog, Chinese shar pei, Chow chow, English setter, German shepherd dog, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever, Mastiff, Newfoundland, Pomeranian, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard.

Source: Breed Susceptibility for Developmental Orthopedic Diseases in Dogs Elizabeth LaFond, DVM, Diplomate ACVS, Gert J. Breur, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS and Connie C. 'Austin, MPH, PhD

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