Deracoxib (Deramaxx) is a non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the coxib class, used in veterinary medicine for the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs, and for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with orthopedic surgery and dental surgery in dogs. Deramaxx tablets are round, biconvex, chewable tablets that contain deracoxib formulated with beefy flavoring. Each chewable tablet contains 12, 25, 50, 75, or 100 milligrams (mg) deracoxib 1.
Deracoxib is a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor with reduced ulcerogenic side effects. Selective inhibitors of COX-2 are an alternative to traditional NSAIDs. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is responsible for the synthesis of inflammatory mediators.
Deracoxib is not excreted as parent drug in the urine. The major route of elimination of deracoxib is by hepatic biotransformation producing four major metabolites, two of which are characterized as products of oxidation and o-demethylation. The majority of deracoxib is excreted in feces as parent drug or metabolite 8.
Prevention and/or Treatment of Some Cancers
Inhibition of COX-2 represents a possible avenue for the prevention and/or treatment of some cancers. Recently, deracoxib has shown antitumor activity against canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs with the median survival time of 323 days 3. Another study demonstrated that COX inhibition reduced the growth of canine mammary cancer cells in mice, suggesting that COX inhibitors could have a positive effect in dogs 4.
Although the drug is currently approved for use in dogs, researchers from the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine have demonstrated that deracoxib may be a useful alternative for anti-inflammatory treatment of various conditions in the horse 5.
Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in reducing pain and inflammation, and, unlike aspirin, do not produce substantial suppressive effects on thyroid function 7, these agents have adverse effects. Oral administration of some COX-2 selective NSAIDs causes detectable alterations in platelet function in dogs. Individual assessment of platelet function is advised when administering these drugs prior to surgery, particularly in the presence of other risk factors for bleeding 2. Potential adverse effects include duodenal perforation and subsequent septic peritonitis. Dogs receiving deracoxib, even at labeled dosages, should be monitored judiciously for signs of gastrointestinal disease 6.
Deracoxib is not for use in humans. Keep this and all medications out of reach of children. Consult a physician in case of accidental ingestion by humans. Do not use in cats 8.
- Effects of carprofen, meloxicam and deracoxib on platelet function in dogs
- Antitumor effects of deracoxib treatment in 26 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (2011)
- Sonzogni-Desautels K, Knapp DW, Sartin E, Doré M. Effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in a xenograft model of canine mammary tumours.
- Davis JL, Marshall JF, Papich MG, Blikslager AT, Campbell NB. The pharmacokinetics and in vitro cyclooxygenase selectivity of deracoxib in horses.
- Case JB, Fick JL, Rooney MB. Proximal duodenal perforation in three dogs following deracoxib administration.
- Panciera DL, Refsal KR, Sennello KA, Ward DL. Effects of deracoxib and aspirin on serum concentrations of thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in healthy dogs.
- DERAMAXX (deracoxib) tablet, chewable)
- C. David Tollison, John R. Satterthwaite, Joseph W. Tollison. Practical Pain Management