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    Heavy Metal Poisining in Birds

    Heavy metal toxicities are of major concern in wild and captive avian species. In wild birds, it is impossible to control heavy metal toxicity fully. Nevertheless, it is our responsibility to prevent it in captive species.

    Lead and Zinc Toxicity (LZT)

    Parrots are known as very curious and active creatures who like to chew anything in their environment. Since there are many objects in their immediate environment which contain zinc and almost as many that contain lead, they are prone to LZT. Objects that contain zinc are galvanized cages, food and water dishes, toys, jewelry, chains etc. Objects that contain lead include batteries, curtain weights, PVC, toys etc.

    Metal toxicosis is a major problem affecting both wild and captive avian populations. Historically, toxicities involving lead, zinc, iron, or copper appear to have the greatest clinical impact on birds. For example, lead and zinc toxicities are commonly recognized causes of illness in pet psittacine birds, birds in zoological collections, and waterfowl.

    Of the heavy metals, lead and zinc are the most important in captive birds since they are common in their immediate environment. Clinical signs of lead and zinc toxicity (LZT) are very similar but are not specific since many disease conditions can show the same signs. Therefore a thorough history should be taken followed by a physical examination, radiographs, blood tests and blood and plasma levels of lead and zinc. Specific treatment is indicated with a good prognosis according to the severity of the poisoning.

    Clinical Signs

    Clinical signs of Zinc and Lead poisoning in birds include:

    • Anorexia
    • Ataxia (poor movement coordination)
    • Depression
    • Diarrhea
    • Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
    • Polydipsia (increased thirst)
    • Polyuria (increased urination)
    • Regurgitation
    • Seizures
    • Weakness
    • Weight loss
    • Ultimately, death

    Diagnosis

    Blood Tests

    The final diagnosis is made by measuring the levels of lead and zinc in the blood. Normal blood lead levels are considered to be less than 0.2 ppm, and normal plasma zinc levels are less than 2 ppm. Complete blood count (CBC)/ full blood count (FBC) may show heterocytosis and anemia. Blood chemistry can show dehydration and elevated uric-acid levels.

    Radiographs

    Radiography is a useful method for imaging metallic objects in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Endoscopy

    Endoscopy can aid in finding metallic objects in the ventriculus as well as for extracting them.

    Treatment

    Treatment includes supportive care, the use of specific chelating agents and bulking and cathartics. Chelating agents used are Ca-EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) and D-Penicillamine.

    Summary

    Heavy metal toxicities are more common than it seems. Since the environment of the captive birds is full of material made from zinc and lead, we must investigate for LZT in addition to other diseases. Clinical signs of LZT are common to many other conditions. Radiography, plasma zinc levels and blood lead levels can lead to a final diagnosis. Complete blood count (CBC) and blood chemistry might support the diagnosis. A correct diagnosis will lead to the appropriate treatment and will improve the prognosis. A misdiagnosis will probably lead to the death of the bird. An essential part of the treatment is the prevention of reoccurring toxicities. Owners should be advised about the risk of hazardous materials in the birds’ environment.

    Video Credits: MARLENE MC’COHEN

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