Formaldehyde, a colorless gas with a pungent odor, is so commonly used today that virtually everyone is likely to be exposed to at least small amounts of it, and a significant number of people are developing symptoms due to exposure to large amounts of formaldehyde in their homes and workplace. It was an integral component of the urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) that was installed in more than 500,000 homes in the 1970s. (The use of formaldehyde in insulation was banned by the Consumer Product Safety Commission in 1982, but this ruling was overturned by a federal court in 1983.) In addition, it is present in a large variety of consumer products. It is a major part of the resins used as glue in particle board, plywood, and other wood products used extensively in the construction of homes and furniture. Some cosmetics, upholstery, permanent press fabrics, carpets and pesticides contain it, too. Formaldehyde is also present in the exhaust from some appliances and in tobacco smoke.
The most common symptoms of excessive formaldehyde exposure are burning eyes, itching, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, coughing, headaches, nausea, and asthma attacks. Large amounts of the gas have produced cancer in laboratory animals, and government policy assumes that any substance that can cause cancer in animals may also cause it in humans.